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Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas
- Lee, Kyung-Min, Herrman, Timothy J., Post, Lynn
- Journal of food protection 2016 v.79 no.9 pp. 1562-1571
- Food and Drug Administration, Salmonella, aflatoxins, animal proteins, coproducts, corn, diet, distillers grains, ethanol, ethanol production, feedstocks, food animals, food safety, fumonisins, good manufacturing practices, hazard characterization, nutrients, poultry, ruminants, sulfur, virginiamycin, Texas
- This article contains the results of the evaluation of distillers grain (DG) coproducts from different ethanol plants around the United States and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between maize and sorghum coproducts, as well as wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) and dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 maize DDGS, 1 maize WDGS, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample of 168 DG samples was contaminated with animal protein prohibited for use in ruminant feed and was channeled to poultry feed. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG coproducts averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated maize DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum action level of 20 μg/kg for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level of 5 mg/kg. The study provides the most current results involving DG coproducts and associated hazards that will assist development of food safety plans required by the FDA in their September 2015 rule titled ''Current Good Manufacturing Practice Hazard Analysis and Risk Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals.''