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Development of the radical-stable Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) by blocking the radical attack

Kim, Su Jin, Joo, Jeong Chan, Kim, Han Sang, Kwon, Inchan, Song, Bong Keun, Yoo, Young Je, Kim, Yong Hwan
Journal of biotechnology 2014 v.189 pp. 78-85
Coprinopsis cinerea, active sites, amino acids, biocatalysts, enzyme inactivation, free radicals, mass spectrometry, mutants, oxidation, peroxidase, phenol, site-directed mutagenesis
Despite the potential use of peroxidases as industrial biocatalysts, their practical application is often impeded due to suicide inactivation by radicals generated in oxidative reactions. Using a peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus (CiP) as a model enzyme, we revealed a dominant factor for peroxidase inactivation during phenol oxidation, and we engineered radical-stable mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an amino acid residue susceptible to modification by phenoxyl radical. Mass spectrometry analysis of inactivated CiP identified an adduct between F230 and a phenoxyl radical, and subsequently, the F230 residue was mutated to amino acids that resisted radical coupling. Of the F230 mutants, the F230A mutant showed the highest stability against radical inactivation, retaining 80% of its initial activity, while the wild-type protein was almost completely inactivated. The F230A mutant also exhibited a 16-fold higher turnover of the phenol substrate compared with the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the F230A mutant was stable during the oxidation of other phenolic compounds, including m-cresol and 3-methoxyphenol. No structural changes were observed by UV–vis and CD spectra of CiP after radical coupling, implying that the F230–phenol radical adduct inactivated CiP by blocking substrate access to the active site. Our novel strategy can be used to improve the stability of other peroxidases inactivated by radicals.