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Recovery patterns, histological observations and genetic integrity in Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using droplet-vitrification and encapsulation-dehydration procedures

Li, Bai-Quan, Feng, Chao-Hong, Wang, Min-Rui, Hu, Ling-Yun, Volk, Gayle, Wang, Qiao-Chun
Journal of biotechnology 2015 v.214 pp. 182-191
Malus, callus formation, cryopreservation, flow cytometry, genetic stability, genotype, hybrids, leaf primordia, microsatellite repeats, nitrogen, ploidy, random amplified polymorphic DNA technique, regrowth, shoot tips
A droplet-vitrification procedure is described for cryopreservation of Malus shoot tips. Survival patterns, recovery types, histological observations, and genetic integrity were compared for Malus shoot tips cryopreserved using this droplet-vitrification procedure and an encapsulation-dehydration procedure that was previously reported by us. In both procedures, three types of shoot tip recovery were observed following cryopreservation: callus formation without shoot regrowth, leaf formation without shoot regrowth, and shoot regrowth. Three categories of histological observations were also identified in cross-sections of shoot tips recovered after cryopreservation using the two cryogenic procedures. In category 1, almost all of the cells (94–95%) in the apical dome (AD) were damaged or killed and only some cells (30–32%) in the leaf primordia (LPs) survived. In category 2, only a few cells (18–20%) in the AD and some cells (30–31%) in the LPs survived. In category 3, majority of the cells (60–62%) in the AD and some cells (30–33%) in the LPs survived. These data suggest that shoot regrowth is correlated to the presence of a majority of surviving cells in the AD after liquid nitrogen exposure. No polymorphic bands were detected by inter-simple sequence repeats or by random amplified polymorphic DNA assessments, and ploidy levels analyzed by flow cytometry were unchanged when plants recovered after cryoexposure were compared to controls. The droplet-vitrification procedure appears to be robust since seven genotypes representing four Malus species and one hybrid recovered shoots following cryopreservation. Mean shoot regrowth levels of these seven genotypes were 48% in the droplet-vitrification method, which were lower than those (61%) in the encapsulation-dehydration procedure reported in our previous study, suggesting the latter may be preferred for routine cryobanking applications for Malus shoot tips.