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Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 mediates apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress in mesangial cells of diabetic nephropathy

Yao, Fang, Li, Zhen, Ehara, Takashi, Yang, Lin, Wang, Dandan, Feng, Lulu, Zhang, Yiming, Wang, Kun, Shi, Yonghong, Duan, Huijun, Zhang, Lianshan
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 2015 v.411 pp. 232-242
B-lymphocytes, apoptosis, biopsy, caspase-12, diabetic nephropathy, endoplasmic reticulum, fatty acid-binding proteins, free fatty acids, glucose, humans, hyperglycemia, lipid metabolism, lipotoxicity, lymphoma, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, oleic acid, patients, small interfering RNA, ultrastructure
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and deregulated lipid metabolism with increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Apoptosis of glomerular cells is a hallmark in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4), a carrier protein for fatty acids, has been linked to diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Here we aimed to investigate the link between FABP4 and apoptosis in diabetic glomerulosclerosis. We first evaluated the presence of FABP4 and ER stress markers as well as apoptosis-related proteins in renal biopsies of patients with DN. Then we used FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 or siRNA to further investigate the role of FABP4 in ER stress and apoptosis induced by NEFA or high glucose in cultured human mesangial cells (HMCs).We found FABP4 was expressed mainly in glomerular mesangial cells of the human renal biopsies and the glomerular FABP4 was increased in renal biopsies of DN. The up-regulation of FABP4 was accompanied with increased glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and Caspase-12 as well as down-regulated B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) in glomeruli. Along with the induction of FABP4 and apoptosis, GRP78 and its three sensors as well as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Caspase-12 were induced in HMCs treated with NEFA or high glucose and these responses were attenuated or even abrogated by treating with FABP4 inhibitor or FABP4 siRNA. Ultrastructure observation confirmed the lipotoxicity of oleic acid by showing the morphological damage in HMCs. Our data suggest that FABP4 in glomerular mesangial cells is up-regulated in DN and FABP4 mediates apoptosis via the ER stress in HMCs.