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pH-sensitive polymeric cisplatin-ion complex with styrene-maleic acid copolymer exhibits tumor-selective drug delivery and antitumor activity as a result of the enhanced permeability and retention effect B Biointerfaces

Saisyo, Atsuyuki, Nakamura, Hideaki, Fang, Jun, Tsukigawa, Kenji, Greish, Khaled, Furukawa, Hiroyuki, Maeda, Hiroshi
Colloids and surfaces 2016 v.138 pp. 128-137
adverse effects, antineoplastic activity, cisplatin, colloids, composite polymers, cytotoxicity, drug therapy, electrophoresis, light scattering, mice, micelles, neoplasms, normal distribution, pH, particle size, permeability, pharmacokinetics, tissues, weight loss
Cisplatin (CDDP) is widely used to treat various cancers. However, its distribution to normal tissues causes serious adverse effects. For this study, we synthesized a complex of styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA) and CDDP (SMA–CDDP), which formed polymeric micelles, to achieve tumor-selective drug delivery based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. SMA–CDDP is obtained by regulating the pH of the reaction solution of SMA and CDDP. The mean SMA-CDDP particle size was 102.5nm in PBS according to electrophoretic light scattering, and the CDDP content was 20.1% (w/w). The release rate of free CDDP derivatives from the SMA–CDDP complex at physiological pH was quite slow (0.75%/day), whereas it was much faster at pH 5.5 (4.4%/day). SMA–CDDP thus had weaker in vitro toxicity at pH 7.4 but higher cytotoxicity at pH 5.5. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a 5-fold higher tumor concentration of SMA–CDDP than of free CDDP. SMA–CDDP had more effective antitumor potential but lower toxicity than did free CDDP in mice after i.v. administration. Administration of parental free CDDP at 4mg/kg×3 caused a weight loss of more than 5%; SMA–CDDP at 60mg/kg (CDDP equivalent)×3 caused no significant weight change but markedly suppressed S-180 tumor growth. These findings together suggested using micelles of the SMA–CDDP complex as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent because of beneficial properties-tumor-selective accumulation and relatively rapid drug release at the acidic pH of the tumor-which resulted in superior antitumor effects and fewer side effects compared with free CDDP.