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Diversity and distribution of planktonic anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the Dongjiang River, China

Sun, Wei, Xia, Chunyu, Xu, Meiying, Guo, Jun, Wang, Aijie, Sun, Guoping
Microbiological research 2014 v.169 pp. 897-906
ammonium nitrogen, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, estuaries, freshwater, genes, hydrazine, marine ecosystems, nitrate nitrogen, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, oxidation, phylogeny, plankton, ribosomal RNA, rivers, China
Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) process has recently been recognized as an important pathway for removing fixed nitrogen (N) from aquatic ecosystems. Anammox organisms are widely distributed in freshwater environments. However, little is known about their presence in the water column of riverine ecosystems. Here, the existence of a diverse anammox community was revealed in the water column of the Dongjiang River by analyzing 16S rRNA and hydrazine oxidation (hzo) genes of anammox bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of hzo genes showed that Candidatus Jettenia related clades of anammox bacteria were dominant in the river, suggesting the ecological microniche distinction from freshwater/estuary and marine anammox bacteria with Ca. Brocadia and Kuenenia genera mainly detected in freshwater/estuary ecosystems, and Ca. Scalindua genus mainly detected in marine ecosystems. The abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria along the river were both significantly correlated with concentrations of NH4+-N based on Pearson and partial correlation analyses. Redundancy analyses showed the contents of NH4+-N, NO3−-N and the ratio of NH4+-N to NO2−-N significantly influenced the spatial distributions of anammox bacteria in the water column of the Dongjiang River. These results expanded our understanding of the distribution and potential roles of anammox bacteria in the water column of the river ecosystem.