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Phylogenetic diversity and biological activity of culturable Actinobacteria isolated from freshwater fish gut microbiota

Jami, Mansooreh, Ghanbari, Mahdi, Kneifel, Wolfgang, Domig, Konrad J.
Microbiological research 2015 v.175 pp. 6-15
Agromyces, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Saccharomonospora, Schizothorax, Streptomyces, animal pathogenic bacteria, antibacterial properties, bioactive compounds, biodiversity, biosynthesis, freshwater fish, genes, glycosylation, humans, intestinal microorganisms, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal DNA, ribosomal RNA, secondary metabolites, sequence analysis
The diversity of Actinobacteria isolated from the gut microbiota of two freshwater fish species namely Schizothorax zarudnyi and Schizocypris altidorsalis was investigated employing classical cultivation techniques, repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), partial and full 16S rDNA sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. A total of 277 isolates were cultured by applying three different agar media. Based on rep-PCR profile analysis a subset of 33 strains was selected for further phylogenetic investigations, antimicrobial activity testing and diversity analysis of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic genes. The identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the isolates belong to eight genera distributed among six families. At the family level, 72% of the 277 isolates belong to the family Streptomycetaceae. Among the non-streptomycetes group, the most dominant group could be allocated to the family of Pseudonocardiaceae followed by the members of Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that many of the isolates in the genera Streptomyces, Saccharomonospora, Micromonospora, Nocardiopsis, Arthrobacter, Kocuria, Microbacterium and Agromyces formed a single and distinct cluster with the type strains. Notably, there is no report so far about the occurrence of these Actinobacteria in the microbiota of freshwater fish. Of the 33 isolates, all the strains exhibited antibacterial activity against a set of tested human and fish pathogenic bacteria. Then, to study their associated potential capacity to synthesize diverse bioactive natural products, diversity of genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis including PKS I, PKS II, NRPS, the enzyme PhzE of the phenazine pathways, the enzyme dTGD of 6-deoxyhexoses glycosylation pathway, the enzyme Halo of halogenation pathway and the enzyme CYP in polyene polyketide biosynthesis were investigated among the isolates. All the strains possess at least two types of the investigated biosynthetic genes, one-fourth of them harbours more than four. This study demonstrates the significant diversity of Actinobacteria in the fish gut microbiota and it's potential to produce biologically active compounds.