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Genistein suppressed epithelial–mesenchymal transition and migration efficacies of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells activated by estrogenic chemicals via estrogen receptor pathway and downregulation of TGF-β signaling pathway
- Kim, Ye-Seul, Choi, Kyung-Chul, Hwang, Kyung-A
- Phytomedicine 2015 v.22 pp. 993-999
- animal ovaries, antagonists, bisphenol A, cadherins, cathepsin D, cell movement, chemoprevention, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, estradiol, estrogen receptors, gene expression regulation, genes, genistein, neoplasm cells, ovarian neoplasms, protein synthesis, signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta, vimentin
- Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is activated by 17β-estradiol (E2) in estrogen-responsive cancers, is an important process in tumor migration or progression. As typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) have a potential to promote EMT and migration of estrogen-responsive cancers. On the contrary, genistein (GEN) as a phytoestrogen is known to have chemopreventive effects in diverse cancers.In the present study, the effects of BPA and GEN on EMT and the migration of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells and the underlying mechanism were investigated. ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, was co-treated with E2 or BPA or NP to BG-1 cells to identify the relevance of ER signaling in EMT and migration.As results, E2 and BPA upregulated the protein expression of vimentin, cathepsin D, and MMP-2, but downregulated the protein expression of E-cadherin via ER signaling pathway, suggesting that E2 and BPA promote EMT and cell migration related gene expressions. However, the increased protein expressions of vimentin, cathepsin D, and MMP-2 by E2, BPA, or NP were reduced by the co-treatment of GEN. In a scratch assay, the migration capability of BG-1 cells was enhanced by E2, BPA, and NP via ER signaling but reversed by the co-treatment of GEN. In the protein expression of SnoN and Smad3, E2, BPA, and NP upregulated SnoN, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling, and downregulated pSmad3, a transcription factor in the downstream pathway of TGF-β signaling pathway, suggesting that E2, BPA, and NP simultaneously lead to the downregualtion of TGF-β signaling in the process of induction of EMT and migration of BG-1 cells via ER signaling. On the other hand, the co-treatment of GEN reversed the downregulation of TGF-β signaling by estrogenic chemicals.Taken together, GEN suppressed EMT and migration capacities of BG-1 ovarian cancer cells enhanced by E2, BPA, and NP via ER signaling and the downregulation of TGF-β signal.