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Potential of butein, a tetrahydroxychalcone to obliterate cancer

Padmavathi, Ganesan, Rathnakaram, Sivakumar Raju, Monisha, Javadi, Bordoloi, Devivasha, Roy, Nand Kishor, Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B.
Phytomedicine 2015 v.22 pp. 1163-1171
CXCR4 receptor, adverse effects, angiogenesis, antineoplastic activity, apoptosis, chemoprevention, chemosensitization, drug therapy, gene expression, liver, metastasis, mitogen-activated protein kinase, neoplasm cells, transcription factor NF-kappa B, urinary bladder neoplasms, vascular endothelial growth factors
Despite the major advances made in the field of cancer biology, it still remains one of the most fatal diseases in the world. It is now well established that natural products are safe and efficacious and have high potential in the prevention and treatment of different diseases including cancer. Butein is one such compound which is now found to have anti-cancer properties against various malignancies.To thoroughly review the literature available on the anti-cancer properties of butein against different cancers and its molecular targets.A thorough literature search has been done in PubMed for butein, its biological activities especially cancer and its molecular targets.Our search retrieved several reports on the various biological activities of butein in which around 43 articles reported that butein shows potential anti-proliferative effect against a wide range of neoplasms and the molecular target varies with cancer types. Most often it targets NF-κB and its downstream pathways. In addition, butein induces the expression of genes which mediate the cell death and apoptosis in cancer cells. It also inhibits tumor angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis in prostate, liver and bladder cancers through the inhibition of MMPs, VEGF etc. Moreover, it inhibits the overexpression of several proteins and enzymes such as STAT3, ERK, CXCR4, COX-2, Akt, EGFR, Ras etc. involved in tumorigenesis.Collectively, all these findings suggest the enormous potential and efficacy of butein as a multitargeted chemotherapeutic, chemopreventive and chemosensitizing agent against a wide range of cancers with minimal or no adverse side effects.