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Ellagitannins modulate the inflammatory response of human neutrophils ex vivo

Granica, Sebastian, Piwowarski, Jakub P., Kiss, Anna K.
Phytomedicine 2015 v.22 pp. 1215-1222
anti-inflammatory activity, elastase, reactive oxygen species, gingivitis, medicinal plants, plant extracts, oral administration, mouth, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, volunteers, apoptosis, interleukin-8, traditional medicine, Toll-like receptor 4, humans, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, tannins, inflammation, neutrophils, anti-infective agents
Tannin-rich plant materials are commonly used in the traditional medicine as external anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. Plant extracts containing significant quantities of tannins are often used in the prevention and treatment of oral cavity diseases such as periodontosis or gingivitis. The contribution of pure ellagitannins to the observed anti-inflammatory activity of tannin-rich remedies is still not resolved.The aim of the present study the study was to establish if ellagitannins and their precursor – pentagalloylglucose (1) can modulate the inflammatory response of ex-vivo stimulated neutrophils.Human neutrophils were isolated from the buffy coats obtained from healthy volunteers. Neutrophils were cultivated with or without tested compounds. The influence of ellagitannins and 1 on the production and release of pro-inflammatory factors such as elastase, reactive oxygen species, interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and metalloproteinase-9 was evaluated using ELISA sets or chemical methods. The effect on surface expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4) and apoptosis was also checked using flow cytometry.The results showed that ellgitannins modulate the inflammatory response of human neutrophils by the inhibition of production and release of chosen cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes. By the induction of TNF-α ellagitannins enhance neutrophil apoptosis, which is of interest in the case of chronic inflammation within oral cavity. Ellagitannins also decrease the surface expression of TLR-4 in activated neutrophils.The results support the traditional use of tannin-rich products in the prevention and treatment of oral cavity diseases. The present study proves the substantial contribution of ellagitannins to the anti-inflammatory activity of tannin-rich medicinal plant materials.