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Organelles Contribute Differentially to Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Events during Extended Darkness

Rosenwasser, Shilo, Rot, Ilona, Sollner, Evelyn, Meyer, Andreas J., Smith, Yoav, Leviatan, Noam, Fluhr, Robert, Friedman, Haya
Plant physiology 2011 v.156 no.1 pp. 185-201
Arabidopsis thaliana, cell death, energy deprivation, green fluorescent protein, leaves, mitochondria, oxidation, oxygen, peroxisomes, plastids, reactive oxygen species, senescence, sucrose, transcriptome
Treatment of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves by extended darkness generates a genetically activated senescence program that culminates in cell death. The transcriptome of leaves subjected to extended darkness was found to contain a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-specific signatures. The levels of transcripts constituting the transcriptome footprints of chloroplasts and cytoplasm ROS stresses decreased in leaves, as early as the second day of darkness. In contrast, an increase was detected in transcripts associated with mitochondrial and peroxisomal ROS stresses. The sequential changes in the redox state of the organelles during darkness were examined by redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein probes (roGFP) that were targeted to specific organelles. In plastids, roGFP showed a decreased level of oxidation as early as the first day of darkness, followed by a gradual increase to starting levels. However, in mitochondria, the level of oxidation of roGFP rapidly increased as early as the first day of darkness, followed by an increase in the peroxisomal level of oxidation of roGFP on the second day. No changes in the probe oxidation were observed in the cytoplasm until the third day. The increase in mitochondrial roGFP degree of oxidation was abolished by sucrose treatment, implying that oxidation is caused by energy deprivation. The dynamic redox state visualized by roGFP probes and the analysis of microarray results are consistent with a scenario in which ROS stresses emanating from the mitochondria and peroxisomes occur early during darkness at a presymptomatic stage and jointly contribute to the senescence program.