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Host-defense peptides from skin secretions of the octoploid frogs Xenopus vestitus and Xenopus wittei (Pipidae): Insights into evolutionary relationships

Mechkarska, Milena, Coquet, Laurent, Leprince, Jérôme, Jouenne, Thierry, Vaudry, Hubert, Michalak, Katarzyna, Michalak, Pawel, Conlon, J. Michael
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part D: Genomics and Proteomics 2014 v.11 pp. 20-28
Staphylococcus aureus, Xenopus laevis, bacteria, frogs, genes, hemolysis, octaploidy, peptides, phylogeny, skin (animal), tetraploidy
The primary structures of host-defense peptides have proved useful in elucidating the evolution history of frogs. Peptidomic analysis was used to compare the diversity of host-defense peptides in norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions from the octoploid frogs, Xenopus vestitus (Kivu clawed frog) and Xenopus wittei (De Witte's clawed frog) in the family Pipidae. Structural characterization demonstrated that the X. vestitus peptides belong to the magainin (3 peptides), peptide glycine–leucine–amide (PGLa; 4 peptides), xenopsin-precursor fragment (XPF; 1 peptide), and caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF; 5 peptides) families. The X. wittei peptides comprise magainin (4 peptides), PGLa (1 peptide), XPF (2 peptides), and CPF (7 peptides). In addition, secretions from both species contain caerulein, identical to the peptide from Xenopus laevis, but X. wittei secretions contains the novel peptide [R4K]xenopsin. The variability in the numbers of paralogs in each peptide family indicates a selective silencing of the host-defense peptide genes following the polyploidization events. The primary structures of the peptides provide insight into phylogenetic relationships among the octoploid Xenopus frogs. The data support a sister-group relationship between X. vestitus and Xenopus lenduensis, suggestive of bifurcating speciation after allopolyploidization, whereas X. wittei is more closely related to the Xenopus amieti–Xenopus andrei group suggesting a common tetraploid ancestor. Consistent with previous data, the CPF peptides showed the highest growth inhibitory activity against bacteria with CPF-W6 (GIGSLLAKAAKLAAGLV.NH2) combining high antimicrobial potency against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC=4μM) with relatively low hemolytic activity (LC50=190μM).