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Peptidomics combined with cDNA library unravel the diversity of centipede venom

Rong, Mingqiang, Yang, Shilong, Wen, Bo, Mo, Guoxiang, Kang, Di, Liu, Jie, Lin, Zhilong, Jiang, Wenbin, Li, Bowen, Du, Chaoqin, Yang, Shuanjuan, Jiang, Hui, Feng, Qiang, Xu, Xun, Wang, Jun, Lai, Ren
Journal of proteomics 2015 v.114 pp. 28-37
Araneae, Scolopendra, Scorpiones, arthropods, cDNA libraries, complementary DNA, cysteine, ion channels, peptides, signal peptide, toxins, venoms
Centipedes are one of the oldest venomous arthropods using toxin as their weapon to capture prey. But little attention was focused on them and only few centipede toxins were demonstrated with activity on ion channels. Therefore, more deep works are needed to understand the diversity of centipede venom. In the present study, we use peptidomics combined with cDNA library to uncover the diversity of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch. 192 peptides were identified by LC-MS/MS and 79 precursors were deduced by cDNA library. Surprisingly, the signal peptides of centipede toxins were more complicated than any other animal toxins and even exhibited large differences in homologues. Meanwhile, a large number of variants generated by alternative cleavage sites were detected by mass spectra. Odd number of cystein (3, 5, 7) found in the mature peptides were seldom seen in peptide toxins. In additional, two novel cysteine frameworks (C–C–C–CCC, C–C–C–C–CC–CC) were identified from 16 different cysteine frameworks from centipede peptides. Only 29 precursors have clear targets, while others may provide a potential diversity function for centipede. These findings highlight the extensive diversity of centipede toxins and provide powerful tools to understand the capture and defense weapon of centipede.Peptide toxins from venomous animal have attracted increasing attentions due to their extraordinary chemical and pharmacological diversity. Centipedes are one of the most used Chinese traditional medicines, but little was known about the active components. The venom of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans L. Koch is first deeply analyzed in this work and most of peptides were never discovered before. Interestingly, the number and arrangement of cysteine showed a larger different to known peptide toxins such spider or scorpion toxins. Moreover, only 29 peptides from this centipede venom were identified with known function. It suggested that our work not only important to understand the composition of centipede venom, but also provide many valuable peptides for potential biological functions.