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Modulation of host immunity by tick saliva

Kotál, Jan, Langhansová, Helena, Lieskovská, Jaroslava, Andersen, John F., Francischetti, Ivo M.B., Chavakis, Triantafyllos, Kopecký, Jan, Pedra, Joao H.F., Kotsyfakis, Michail, Chmelař, Jindřich
Journal of proteomics 2015 v.128 pp. 58-68
gene expression, genes, high-throughput nucleotide sequencing, immune system, immunity, pathogens, protein synthesis, proteome, proteomics, saliva, salivary glands, ticks, transcriptome, transcriptomics, vertebrates
Next generation sequencing and proteomics have helped to comprehensively characterize gene expression in tick salivary glands at both the transcriptome and the proteome level. Functional data are, however, lacking. Given that tick salivary secretions are critical to the success of the tick transmission lifecycle and, as a consequence, for host colonization by the pathogens they spread, we thoroughly review here the literature on the known interactions between tick saliva (or tick salivary gland extracts) and the innate and adaptive vertebrate immune system. The information is intended to serve as a reference for functional characterization of the numerous genes and proteins expressed in tick salivary glands with an ultimate goal to develop novel vector and pathogen control strategies.We overview all the known interactions of tick saliva with the vertebrate immune system. The provided information is important, given the recent developments in high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of gene expression in tick salivary glands, since it may serve as a guideline for the functional characterization of the numerous newly-discovered genes expressed in tick salivary glands.