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Proteomics approach to examine the cardiotoxic effects of Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish venom

Choudhary, Indu, Lee, Hyunkyoung, Pyo, Min-Jung, Heo, Yunwi, Bae, Seong Kyeong, Kwon, Young Chul, Yoon, Won Duk, Kang, Changkeun, Kim, Euikyung
Journal of proteomics 2015 v.128 pp. 123-131
Scyphozoa, Western blotting, aldehyde reductase, animal models, bites and stings, cardiac arrest, cardiomyocytes, cytokines, cytotoxicity, desorption, dose response, gene expression regulation, ionization, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry, myosin, non-specific protein-tyrosine kinase, poisoning, population growth, protein synthesis, proteome, proteomics, rats, risk, signal transduction, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, venoms, viability
Nemopilema nomurai is one of the largest species of jellyfish in the world. It blooms mainly offshore of Korea, China, and Japan. Increasing population numbers of N. nomurai is increasing the risk of sea bathers to the jellyfish stings and accompanying envenomations. Cardiovascular effects, and cytotoxicity and hemolytic activities have been previously reported in rodent models. To understand the mechanism of cardiac toxicity, we examined the effect of N. nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) at the proteome level on rat cardiomyocytes cell line H9c2 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Cells treated with NnV displayed dose-dependent inhibition of viability. Cellular changes at proteome level were investigated after 6h and 12h of venom treatment. Electrophoretic examination revealed 72 protein spots displaying significant quantitative changes. These proteins were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/MS. Thirty four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified; 24 proteins increased in quantity and 10 proteins decreased, compared to the respective controls. Proteins altered in content in Western blot analyses included myosin VII, annexin A2, aldose reductase, suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), and calumenin, which are well-known marker proteins of cardiac dysfunctions.This is the first report revealing the cardiac toxicity of NnV at the proteome level. NnV directly targeted proteins involved in cardiac dysfunction or maintenance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), which inhibits the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway, was upregulated by NnV. Other proteins related to cardiac arrest that were over-expressed included aldose reductase and calumenin. These results clarify the underlying mechanism of cardiomyocyte damage caused by NnV. By inhibiting these particular targets and more precisely identifying the components of NnV-mediated cardiac toxicity, jellyfish venom-associated poisoning could be reduced or prevented.