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Phenotype changes inherited by crossing pyrethroid susceptible and resistant genotypes from the cattle tick Riphicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
- Aguilar-Tipacamu, G., Rosario-Cruz, R., Miller, Robert J., Guerrero, Felix D., Rodriguez-Vivas, R. I., Garcia-Vazquez, Z.
- Experimental & applied acarology 2011 v.54 no.3 pp. 301
- Boophilus microplus, Rhipicephalus, alleles, backcrossing, calves, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, flumethrin, gene frequency, genotype, insecticide resistance, monogenic inheritance, mutation, phenotype, polymerase chain reaction, pyrethrins, resistance mechanisms, sodium channels, survival rate, ticks
- Dialelic crosses and backcrosses of pyrethroid resistant (RR) and susceptible (SS) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick strains were carried out and the substitution (Phe-Ile) within the sodium channel gene was monitored in order to analyze the effects of the genotype on the pyrethroid resistance phenotype as measured by the larval packet test (LPT). Parental strains: susceptible (SS) and resistant (RR); dialelic crosses: RS (#RR 9 $SS), and SR (#SS 9 $RR); and backcrosses: RS 9 SS, RS 9 RR, SR 9 SS and SR 9 RR were infested on 280 kg calves. Resistance type (monogenic or polygenic) and effective dominance were determined based on the discriminant concentration (DC) for cipermethrine (0.5%), deltamethrine (0.09%) and flumethrine (0.01%). Allele specific PCR (AS-PCR) was used for genotyping, looking at a sodium channel mutation (Phe-Ile substitution). The mortality rates and allele frequency of susceptible and pyrethroid resistant reference strains were 0% mortality and 90% RR alleles for resistant strain, and 100% mortality and 0% RR alleles as measured by the larval packet test (LPT) and allele specific PCR (AS-PCR) respectively. Backcrossed strain SR 9 RR showed an effective dominance (DML) of 0.605 for cypermethrin, 0.639 for deltamethrin and 0.498 for flumethrin, while survival of backcrosses RS 9 SS, RS 9 RR and SR 9 SS showed a significant tendency to recesivity. Backcrossed strain SR 9 RR (69.4%) also showed a higher RR genotype frequency with regards to RS 9 SS (25.5%), RS 9 RR (36.7%) and SR 9 SS (32.0%), however, susceptible allele was inherited in general as an incomplete dominant trait. Monogenic inheritance hypothesis was tested and the results showed monogenic inheritance for cypermethrin and flumethrin (P\0.05) but not for deltamethrin (P[0.05). However, significant correlation was found between RR genotype and the survival rate for all three pyrethroids used (P\0.05), suggesting that a single substitution on the sodium channel gene can be responsible for resistance to pyrethroids as a class, due to the high frequency for RR genotypes. Combination with different mutations or metabolic resistance mechanisms cannot be excluded.