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Antibodies inside of a cell can change its outside: Can intrabodies provide a new therapeutic paradigm?

Marschall, Andrea L.J., Dübel, Stefan
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal 2016 v.14 pp. 304-308
Human immunodeficiency virus, RNA interference, antibodies, biotechnology, drugs, neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, post-translational modification, proteins, therapeutics, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2
Challenges posed by complex diseases such as cancer, chronic viral infections, neurodegenerative disorders and many others have forced researchers to think beyond classic small molecule drugs, exploring new therapeutic strategies such as therapy with RNAi, CRISPR/Cas9 or antibody therapies as single or as combination therapies with existing drugs. While classic antibody therapies based on parenteral application can only reach extracellular targets, intracellular application of antibodies could provide specific advantages but is so far little recognized in translational research. Intrabodies allow high specificity and targeting of splice variants or post translational modifications. At the same time off target effects can be minimized by thorough biochemical characterization. Knockdown of cellular proteins by intrabodies has been reported for a significant number of disease-relevant targets, including ErbB-2, EGFR, VEGFR-2, Metalloproteinase MMP2 and MMP9, β-amyloid protein, α-synuclein, HIV gp120, HCV core and many others. This review outlines the recent advances in ER intrabody technology and their potential use in therapy.