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Characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies against Shewanella marisflavi, a novel pathogen of Apostichopus japonicus

Li, Qiang, Jing, Hongli, Li, Hua, Wang, Yinan, Xu, Dehai
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology 2011 v.29 no.5 pp. 973
Apostichopus japonicus, Gram-negative bacteria, Shewanella, animal diseases, animal pathogenic bacteria, bacterial antigens, bacterial colonization, bacterial infections, cell aggregates, cell membranes, cell proliferation, connective tissues, cross reaction, electron microscopy, fluorescent antibody technique, immunoassays, immunohistochemistry, integument, juveniles, lipopolysaccharides, molecular weight, monoclonal antibodies, pathogenesis, proteins
Shewanella marisflavi strain AP629 was certified as a novel pathogen of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In this study, four monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (3C1, 3D9, 2F2, 2A8) against strain AP629 were developed by immunizing Balb/C mice. 3C1 and 3D9 recognized S. marisflavi only, showing no cross reactivity to other gram-negative bacteria. However, 2F2 and 2A8 showed cross reactivity to all tested bacteria. Indirect immunofluorescence, and immunogold electron microscopy, showed the binding antigens of 3C1 and 3D9 were located at the secretion on the surface of strain AP629. The binding antigens of 2F2 and 2A8 were noted on the membrane of the cells. MAbs 3C1 and 3D9 recognized the lipopolysaccharide fraction of strain AP629, and 2F2 and 2A8 recognized in western-blotting protein antigens with molecular weights of 113 and 128 kDa respectively. MAbs 3C1 and 3D9 have the potential for use in pathogen diagnosis, epidemiology and studies on the mechanism of how S. marisflavi infects A. japonicus. Immunohistochemistry with 3C1 or 3D9 identified strain AP629 in the body wall of infected A. japonicus. In the adult sea cucumbers that were infected via body wall injection, positive signals were observed at the site of skin ulceration, and at the connective tissue of the non-ulcerated body wall. In addition, some large blue-stained cells aggregated at the connective tissue colonized by large numbers of bacteria. In juveniles infected via immersion infection, positive signals were observed at the cuticle of the body wall only. Our results suggest that 3C1 and 3D9 could be used in various immunological assays to study the invasion mechanism of strain AP629 in A. japonicus, the law of bacterial colonization, proliferation in different tissues of A. japonicus, and correlation between secretion on the surface of strain AP629 and its pathogenesis to A. japonicus. Keyword: Apostichopus japonicus; Shewanella marisflavi; monoclonal antibodies