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Cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates—a new exceptional class of the electrochemiluminescent luminophores

Kapturkiewicz, Andrzej
Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 2016 v.408 no.25 pp. 7013-7033
analytical methods, chelates, color, electrochemiluminescence, electrochemistry, energy, iridium, phosphorescence, photonics, photons
Recent development of the phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates has enabled, due to their advantageous electrochemical and photo-physical properties, important breakthroughs in many photonic applications. This particular class of 5d⁶ ion complexes has attracted increasing interest because of their potential application in electroluminescence devices with a nearly 100 % internal quantum efficiency for the conversion of electric energy to photons. Similar to electroluminescence, the cyclometalated iridium(III) chelates have been successfully applied in the electricity-to-light conversion by means of the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) processes. The already reported ECL systems utilizing the title compounds exhibit extremely large ECL efficiencies that allow one to envisage many potential application for them, especially in further development of ECL-based analytical techniques. This review, based on recently published papers, focuses on the ECL properties of this very exciting class of organometallic luminophores. The reported work, describing results from fundamental as well as application-oriented investigations, will be surveyed and briefly discussed. Graphical abstract Depending on the chemical nature of the cyclometalated irdium(III) chelate different colours of the emitted light can be produced during electrochemical excitation.