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Ce-Fe-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as an efficient catalyst for sulfamethazine degradation in aqueous solution

Wan, Zhong, Wang, Jianlong
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.18 pp. 18542-18551
X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adsorption, aqueous solutions, catalysts, catalytic activity, chemical reduction, dispersibility, graphene, graphene oxide, hydroxyl radicals, ions, iron, iron oxides, magnetism, nanocomposites, nitrogen content, pH, scanning electron microscopy, sulfur, superoxide anion, transmission electron microscopy
A heterogeneous Fenton catalyst Ce⁰–Fe⁰-reduced graphene oxide (Ce–Fe–RGO) was synthesized with chemical reduction methods and used for degradation of sulfamethazine. The introduction of Ce and graphene increased the dispersibility of iron particles which was confirmed by SEM and TEM. The results of VSM analysis showed good magnetism of Ce–Fe–RGO. The catalyst performance was compared with other kinds of catalysts (Fe⁰ and Ce⁰–Fe⁰) for degradation of sulfamethazine. The results showed that Ce⁰–Fe–RGO had good catalytic performance and adsorption. X-ray diffraction showed the change of iron oxide on catalyst surface after use. The total sulfur (TS), total nitrogen (TN), total organic carbon (TOC), and intermediates, such as small organic molecular and anion ions, were analyzed by IC under different pH conditions. Finally, the possible catalytic mechanism was tentatively proposed based on inhibitor experimental results and XPS characterization. The main active species was hydroxyl radical on catalyst surface and the transition between Ce³⁺ and Ce⁴⁺ which enhanced the reduction from Fe³⁺ to Fe²⁺ and formation of ·OH and ·O₂ ⁻.