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Hepatoprotection with a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens against CCl4-induced injuries in rats

Khan, Rahmat A, Khan, Muhammad R, Ahmed, Mushtaq, Sahreen, Sumaira, Shah, Naseer A, Shah, Mir Sadiq, Bokhari, Jasia, Rashid, Umbreen, Ahmad, Bushra, Jan, Shumaila
BMC complementary and alternative medicine 2012 v.12 no.1 pp. 114
DNA damage, Launaea, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, alternative medicine, antioxidant activity, antioxidants, aspartate transaminase, blood serum, carbon tetrachloride, catalase, catechin, chloroform, enzyme activity, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, glutathione-disulfide reductase, hepatoprotective effect, hepatotoxicity, high performance liquid chromatography, histopathology, kaempferol, lactate dehydrogenase, lesions (animal), lipid peroxidation, liver, males, myricetin, olive oil, peroxidase, plant extracts, rats, rutin, silymarin, superoxide dismutase, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, traditional medicine, Pakistan
BACKGROUND: Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae) is used as a folk medicine to treat hepatic disorders in Pakistan. The effect of a chloroform extract of Launaea procumbens (LPCE) was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver damage in rats. METHODS: To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of LPCE, 36 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into six groups. Animals of group 1 (control) had free access to food and water. Group II received 3 ml/kg of CCl₄ (30% in olive oil v/v) via the intraperitoneal route twice a week for 4 weeks. Group III received 1 ml of silymarin via gavage (100 mg/kg b.w.) after 48 h of CCl₄ treatment whereas groups IV and V were given 1 ml of LPCE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w., respectively) after 48 h of CCl₄ treatment. Group VI received 1 ml of LPCE (200 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week for 4 weeks. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were measured in liver homogenates. DNA damage, argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) counts and histopathology were studied in liver samples. Serum was analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Phytochemical composition in LPCE was determined through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: LPCE inhibited lipid peroxidation, and reduced the activities of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase in serum induced by CCl₄. GSH contents were increased as were the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, SOD, GST, GSR, GSH-Px) when altered due to CCl₄ hepatotoxicity. Similarly, absolute liver weight, relative liver weight and the number of hepatic lesions were reduced with co-administration of LPCE. Phyochemical analyses of LPCE indicated that it contained catechin, kaempferol, rutin, hyperoside and myricetin. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that Launaea procumbens efficiently protected against the hepatotoxicity induced by CCl₄ in rats, possibly through the antioxidant effects of flavonoids present in LPCE.