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Prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in contaminated areas of the Santos-São Vicente Estuarine region and Bertioga, Brazil: 2006-2009

T. S. Ribeiro, D. P. Carvalho, M. T. Guimarães, N. N. Campina, M. R. Lobarinhas, A. L. J. Lopes, M. G. Cunha, I. B. Souza, V. L. F. Oliveira, L. C. Martins, A. Gomes, L. A. A. Pereira, A. L. F. Braga
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.19 pp. 19387-19396
chi-square distribution, cross-sectional studies, elderly, environmental degradation, estuaries, hypertension, occupational exposure, regression analysis, risk factors, Brazil
In Brazil, cardiovascular diseases account for 33% of deaths and the prevalence of hypertension is of approximately 22%. The Santos and São Vicente Estuarine System is the most important example of environmental degradation by chemicals from industrial sources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors in the population of this estuary in the period 2006-2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the aforementioned prevalence of hypertension in the evaluated areas, as well as risk factors for this disease in four contaminated areas located in the Estuary, and one area outside Estuary, the city of Bertioga. Associations between categorical variables were tested using Pearson's chi-square test incorporating Yates' correction, or Fisher's exact test. Single and multiple logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the risk factors for hypertension. The highest prevalence of hypertension was found in Continental São Vicente (28.4%). The risk factors for hypertension were the following: living in Center of Cubatão (OR: 1.3; IC95%: 1.0 – 1.6) and Continental São Vicente (OR: 1.4; IC95%: 1.1 – 1.8); illiterate (OR: 1.9; IC95%: 1.1 – 3.2); living in the area for more than 20 years (OR: 1.2; IC95%: 1.0 – 1.5); group of people aged 36-60 years (OR: 3.9; IC95%: 3.3 – 4.6) and who have had past occupational exposure (OR: 1.3; IC95%: 1.1 – 1.6). Results indicate that living in contaminated areas, especially for a longer time, is a risk factor for hypertension.