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Toxicity of different forms of graphene in a chicken embryo model

Szmidt, Maciej, Sawosz, Ewa, Urbańska, Kaja, Jaworski, Sławomir, Kutwin, Marta, Hotowy, Anna, Wierzbicki, Mateusz, Grodzik, Marta, Lipińska, Ludwika, Chwalibog, André
Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 v.23 no.19 pp. 19940-19948
DNA damage, animal models, body weight, chicken eggs, chickens, dose response, eggs, environmental hazards, genetic markers, graphene, graphene oxide, in vivo studies, liver, mitochondria, toxicity, ultrastructure
In the present work, the toxicity of three forms of graphene: pristine graphene (pG), graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was investigated using a chicken embryo model. Fertilized chicken eggs were divided into the control group and groups administered with pG, GO, and rGO, in concentrations of 50, 500, and 5000 μg/ml. The experimental solutions were injected in ovo into the eggs, and at day 18 of incubation, the embryo survival, body and organ weights, the ultrastructure of liver samples, and the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the livers were measured. Survival of embryos decreased significantly after treatment with all types of graphene, but not in a dose-dependent manner. The body weights were only slightly affected by the highest doses of graphene, while the organ weights were not different among treatment groups. In all experimental groups, atypical hepatocyte ultrastructure and mitochondrial damage were observed. The concentration of the marker of DNA damage 8-OHdG in the liver significantly decreased after pG and rGO treatments. Further in vivo studies with different animal models are necessary to clarify the level of toxicity of different types of graphene and to estimate the concentrations appropriate to evaluate their biomedical applications and environmental hazard.