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Post-translational modifications in mitochondria: protein signaling in the powerhouse

Stram, Amanda R., Payne, R. Mark
Cellular and molecular life sciences 2016 v.73 no.21 pp. 4063-4073
acetylation, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etiology, metabolic syndrome, mitochondria, neoplasms, neurodegenerative diseases, nitrogen, nutrient availability, oxygen, pathophysiology, phosphorylation, post-translational modification, protein-protein interactions, proteomics, screening
There is an intimate interplay between cellular metabolism and the pathophysiology of disease. Mitochondria are essential to maintaining and regulating metabolic function of cells and organs. Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in diverse diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, neurodegeneration, cancer, and aging. Multiple reversible post-translational protein modifications are located in the mitochondria that are responsive to nutrient availability and redox conditions, and which can act in protein–protein interactions to modify diverse mitochondrial functions. Included in this are physiologic redox signaling via reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, phosphorylation, O-GlcNAcylation, acetylation, and succinylation, among others. With the advent of mass proteomic screening techniques, there has been a vast increase in the array of known mitochondrial post-translational modifications and their protein targets. The functional significance of these processes in disease etiology, and the pathologic response to their disruption, are still under investigation. However, many of these reversible modifications act as regulatory mechanisms in mitochondria and show promise for mitochondrial-targeted therapeutic strategies. This review addresses the current knowledge of post-translational processing and signaling mechanisms in mitochondria, and their implications in health and disease.