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Response of Wine Grape Cultivars to Simulated Drift Rates of 2,4-D, Dicamba, and Glyphosate, and 2,4-D or Dicamba Plus Glyphosate

Author:
Mohseni-Moghadam, Mohsen, Wolfe, Scott, Dami, Imed, Doohan, Douglas
Source:
Weed technology 2015 v.30 no.3 pp. 807-814
ISSN:
0890-037X
Subject:
2,4-D, Vitis vinifera, cultivars, dicamba, glyphosate, greenhouse experimentation, growing season, hybrids, nozzles, spray drift, weeds, wine grapes, Ohio
Abstract:
Greenhouse experiments were conducted at Wooster, OH, during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of five wine grape cultivars to sublethal doses of 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate, and the ‘Riesling' grape to mixtures of 2,4-D plus glyphosate and dicamba plus glyphosate. Treatments were made using a spray system calibrated to deliver 0.757 L min⁻¹ at 276 kPa and 4.8 km h⁻¹. Herbicides were delivered through 8002 flat spray nozzles and applied at 1/30, 1/100, and 1/300 of the recommended field rate of 840, 560, and 840 g ae ha⁻¹ for 2,4-D, dicamba, and glyphosate, respectively. Injury was observed in all treatments 7 d after treatment (DAT). However, injury symptoms greater than 10% were observed 42 DAT in plants treated with 2,4-D at all rates and plants treated with dicamba at the two highest rates. Injury (35%) at 357 DAT was noted only in plants treated with the highest rate of 2,4-D. French hybrids showed slightly less injury symptoms compared with wine grapes at 7 and 42 DAT. Shoot length reduction in plants treated with 2,4-D at the highest rate was 43, 84, and 16% at 7, 42, and 357 DAT, respectively. Glyphosate caused the fewest injury symptoms in Riesling compared with 2,4-D and dicamba when applied separately or tank mixed with glyphosate. Shoot length reduction in Riesling was observed 42 DAT with all rates of 2,4-D, with and without glyphosate and dicamba, and dicamba plus glyphosate at the highest rate; however, at 357 DAT, no effect was observed in shoot length. Spray drift of 2,4-D and dicamba can severely injure grapes, with injury increasing with increased exposure. The combination of 2,4-D plus glyphosate caused greater injury and shoot length reduction in grapes than glyphosate applied alone.Nomenclature: 2,4-D; dicamba; glyphosate; wine grape, Vitis vinifera L. ‘Riesling', ‘Chardonnay', ‘Chardonel', ‘Traminette', ‘Vidal blanc'.
Agid:
5558530