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Field parasitism levels of Ceratitis capitata larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Aganaspis daci on different host fruit species in the coastal region of Tartous, Syria

Ali, Ali Y., Ahmad, Ahmad M., Amar, Jafer A., Darwish, Rabea Y., Izzo, Ali M., Al-Ahmad, Samir A.
Biocontrol science and technology 2016 v.26 no.12 pp. 1617-1625
Aganaspis, Ceratitis capitata, Citrus paradisi, Citrus sinensis, Eriobotrya japonica, Ficus carica, Malus domestica, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica, Psidium guajava, Psyttalia, adults, apples, biological control, clementines, coasts, eclosion, figs, fruit trees, fruits, grapefruits, guavas, integrated pest management, larvae, loquats, oranges, orchards, parasitism, parasitoids, peaches, plums, population dynamics, puparium, rearing, surveys, temperature, Syria
The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest of fruit trees in Syria and is attacked by the larval-pupal parasitoid, Aganaspis daci (Weld) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae). The seasonal population dynamics and distribution of A. daci were studied in surveys of orchards [ Citrus reticulatum (clementine), Citrus sinensis (maourdi blood orange), Citrus paradise (grapefruit), C. sinensis (sweet orange), Eriobotrya japonica (loquat), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus domestica (plum), Malus domestica (apple), Figus carica (fig) and Psidium guajava (guava)] at eight locations along the coastal region of Syria, between November 2013 and November 2014. A total of 69.4 kg of infested fruits were sampled, yielding 4274 puparia. From these, 3173 emerged as C. capitata adults, 351 as hymenopteran parasitoids and 750 did not eclose. The parasitoids were identified as A. daci (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and Psyttalia sp. (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The predominant species was A. daci comprising 348 (99.1%) of the total number of parasitoids collected. Populations of A. daci were present from May 2014 to September 2014, and numbers increased with increasing temperature to peak at 32.05% and 34.01% parasitism in June and August 2014, respectively. Parasitoids were only retrieved from larvae reared from loquat, grapefruit, peach and guava with parasitism levels of 1.68%, 30.76%, 18.28% and 16.15%, respectively. These results are important because they suggest that populations of A. daci have potential to be used for biological control in integrated pest management programmes for C. capitata in the coastal region of Syria.