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Sequencing and analysis of the complete organellar genomes of Parmales, a closely related group to Bacillariophyta (diatoms)

Tajima, Naoyuki, Saitoh, Kenji, Sato, Shusei, Maruyama, Fumito, Ichinomiya, Mutsuo, Yoshikawa, Shinya, Kurokawa, Ken, Ohta, Hiroyuki, Tabata, Satoshi, Kuwata, Akira, Sato, Naoki
Current genetics 2016 v.62 no.4 pp. 887-896
Bacillariophyceae, Parmales, amino acids, cell walls, data collection, genes, mitochondrial genome, phylogeny, phytoplankton, plastid genome, ribosomal DNA, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase, sequence analysis
We sequenced the complete plastid and mitochondrial genomes of the unicellular marine phytoplankton Triparma laevis, belonging to the order Parmales (Heterokonta). The cells of Parmales are surrounded by silicified cell walls, similar to Bacillariophyta (diatoms). T. laevis was recognized as a sister group of Bacillariophyta using a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA and rbcL sequences. Bacillariophyta are the most successful group of phytoplankton in the modern ocean, but the origin and early evolution of them have not been clearly established. Detailed molecular analyses of T. laevis may increase our understanding of the evolutionary relationships among Parmales and Bacillariophyta. The gene contents of the plastid and mitochondrial genomes are similar between T. laevis and Bacillariophyta. The gene order of the plastid genome is also similar to Bacillariophyta, whereas the gene order of the mitochondrial genome is not conserved in Bacillariophyta, but the structure is more compact than Bacillariophyta. Phylogenetic analyses, using plastid-encoded concatenated amino acid datasets and mitochondria-encoded concatenated amino acid datasets suggest that T. laevis is a sister group of Bacillariophyta. These results suggest that the characteristics of the organellar genomes of T. laevis are similar and conserve ancestral characteristics more than Bacillariophyta.