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Combination of carvacrol and thymol against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

Masoumi, Farzam, Youssefi, Mohammad Reza, Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini
Parasitology research 2016 v.115 no.11 pp. 4239-4243
Dermanyssus gallinae, acaricidal properties, botanical pesticides, carvacrol, foods, lethal dose 50, markets, mites, mortality, pest resistance, spraying, synergism, thymol
Pest management by conventional pesticides has become progressively hindered by developing pest resistance and increase in consumers demand for safe and residue-free foodstuffs. This will create a considerable market opportunity for alternative products, including botanical pesticides. The present study was conducted to assess the combination of carvacrol and thymol, their repellent activity, and residual toxicity against Dermanyssus gallinae with the aim of designing a new strategy relying on natural compounds for the control of D. gallinae. Different ratios of carvacrol-thymol, 5:0, 4:1, 3:2, 2:3, 1:4, and 0:5 based on LD50 values, were tested for their toxicity on D. gallinae. For residual toxicity assay, mortality rate of mites recorded after being exposed to the surfaces 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post spraying by carvacrol-thymol preparation. In combination toxicity, carvacrol-thymol in 4:1 ratio showed the highest efficacy against D. gallinae. The highest repellent activity was observed in carvacrol-thymol 5:0 combination. Addition of thymol to carvacrol resulted in a decrease in repellent activity of carvacrol as was seen in carvacrol-thymol 3:2, 2:3, and 1:4 ratios (p < 0.05). Carvacrol-thymol in 4:1 ratio at 2 % concentration displayed good residual toxicity and was effective against D. gallinae till 14 days post spraying (p < 0.05). The present study showed that the combination of carvacrol-thymol particularly with a 4:1 ratio displayed improved acaricidal activity and good residual toxicity. However, combining the application of carvacrol and thymol did not show any synergistic effect on repellent activity. Overall, carvacrol-thymol can be suggested as an alternative strategy for the control of D. gallinae.