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Congruence between comparative morphology and molecular phylogenies: the final stage of evolution of the skeletal characters of male genitalia in the subtribe polyommatina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Part 1. Valvae (distal part), aedeagus, and juxta

Korzeev, A. I., Stekolnikov, A. A.
Entomological revue 2016 v.96 no.6 pp. 647-671
Lycaenidae, aedeagus, microstructure, monophyly, parallel evolution
The evolution of the aedeagus, juxta, and microstructures on the valvae in the subtribe Polyommatina (Lycaenidae) during the last 5 MY is considered, and the chronology of morphological changes in these structures is established. The morphological characters of 47 species of the subtribe were tested by molecular analysis. Numerous cases of parallel evolution were discovered in the taxa of various taxonomic levels within Polyommatina. The principal shapes of the aedeagus apex developed independently in different clades. Multiple independent cases of an increase in the number of marginal denticles on the dorsal valvar clasps were observed in the genera Polyommatus, Plebejus, and Kretania. Parallel cases of a decrease in the number of these denticles were observed less frequently, in Aricia, Plebejus (P. argus), and Agriades (A. glandon). The juxta evolved from V- to U-shaped almost in all the clades. The rates of evolution of microcuticular and skeletal structures were shown to be different. For example, the number of cuticular denticles may change in 1 MY, while changes in the functionally important cuticular structures took as long as 2–3.5 MY. However, some structural changes were relatively fast; for instance, the club-shaped apex of the aedeagus was modified into a more typical conical form in less than 1 MY in species of the genus Agriades. Skeletal changes occurred in different moments of the evolutionary time frames of monophyletic species groups.