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Demographic and temporal trends of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDD) in an Australian population
- Drage, Daniel S., Mueller, Jochen F., Hobson, Peter, Harden, Fiona A., Toms, Leisa-Maree L.
- Environmental Research 2017 v.152 pp. 192-198
- blood serum, children, females, half life, hexabromocyclododecane, humans, lipids, males, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, stereoisomers, Queensland
- Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDD) were measured in 67 pooled serum samples collected between 2002 and 2015 in South East Queensland, Australia. These data are the first report of HBCDD in Australian human serum. Temporal and demographic (age and gender) trends were investigated. HBCDD were detected in measurable concentrations in 69% of samples. The average ∑HBCDD concentration was 3.1ng/g lipid, whilst the range was <0.5 to 36ng/g lipid. α-HBCDD was the dominant stereoisomer making up an average of 60% of ∑HBCDD. The remainder was made up by γ-HBCDD. In contrast to another group of brominated flame retardants (BFRs, (polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)), HBCDD were found in the lowest concentrations in pools from children aged 0–4 years. This could be attributed to differences in exposure, usage, and/ or the much lower half-life of HBCDD in the human body compared to PBDEs. HBCDD concentrations appear to be significantly higher in females than in males, however the reasons for this are unclear.