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Characterization and comparison of the temporal dynamics of ruminal bacterial microbiota colonizing rice straw and alfalfa hay within ruminants

Liu, Junhua, Zhang, Mengling, Xue, Chunxu, Zhu, Weiyun, Mao, Shengyong
Journal of dairy science 2016 v.99 no.12 pp. 9668-9681
Anaeroplasma, Butyrivibrio, DNA, Fibrobacter, Holstein, Prevotella, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, air drying, alfalfa, alfalfa hay, bacteria, bacterial colonization, bacterial communities, bags, biochemical pathways, biodegradation, biomass, cannulas, community structure, cows, forage, genes, metagenomics, nutrient use efficiency, nylon, phylogeny, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ribosomal RNA, rice straw, rumen, rumen bacteria, temporal variation
Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to characterize the dynamics of bacterial colonization of rice straw and alfalfa hay and to assess the differences in the composition and inferred gene function of the colonized microbiota between these 2 forages. Nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay samples and residues in nylon bags incubated for 0.5, 2, 6, 16, and 48h were analyzed for dry matter and were used for DNA extraction and MiSeq (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial communities that colonized the air-dried and nonincubated (0h) rice straw and alfalfa hay were both dominated by members of the Proteobacteria (contributing toward 70.47% of the 16S RNA reads generated). In situ incubation of the 2 forages revealed major shifts in the community composition: Proteobacteria were replaced within 30min by members belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, contributing toward 51.9 and 36.6% of the 16S rRNA reads generated, respectively. A second significant shift was observed after 6h of rumen incubation, when members of the Spirochaetes and Fibrobacteria phyla became abundant in the forage-adherent community. During the first 30min of rumen incubation, ~20.7 and 36.1% of the rice straw and alfalfa hay, respectively, were degraded, whereas little biomass degradation occurred between 30min and 2h after the rice straw or alfalfa hay was placed in the rumen. Significant differences were noted in attached bacterial community structure between the 2 forage groups, and the abundances of dominant genera Anaeroplasma, Butyrivibrio, Fibrobacter, and Prevotella were affected by the forage types. Real-time PCR results showed that the 16S rRNA copies of total bacteria attached to these 2 forages were affected by the forage types and incubation time, and higher numbers of attached bacterial 16S rRNA were observed in the alfalfa hay samples than in the rice straw from 0.5 to 16h of incubation. The metagenomes predicted by phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) revealed that the forage types significantly affected 21 metabolic pathways identified in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and 33 were significantly changed over time. Collectively, our results reveal a difference in the dynamics of bacterial colonization and the inferred gene function of microbiota associated with rice straw and alfalfa hay within the rumen. These findings are of great importance for the targeted improvement of forage nutrient use efficiency in ruminants.