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Immobilization of Cd in river sediments by sodium alginate modified nanoscale zero-valent iron: Impact on enzyme activities and microbial community diversity

Huang, Danlian, Xue, Wenjing, Zeng, Guangming, Wan, Jia, Chen, Guomin, Huang, Chao, Zhang, Chen, Cheng, Min, Xu, Piao
Water research 2016 v.106 pp. 15-25
bacterial communities, bioavailability, cadmium, catalase, community structure, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, enzyme activity, ions, iron, microbial activity, microbial detection, polymerase chain reaction, remediation, rivers, sediments, sodium alginate, urease
This paper investigated how sodium alginate (SA)-modified nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI), play a constructive role in the remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated river sediments. The changes of the fraction of Cd, enzyme activities (urease, catalase, dehydrogenase) and bacterial community structures with the treatment by SNZVI were observed. The sequential extraction experiments demonstrated that most mobile fractions of Cd were transformed into residues (the maximum residual percentage of Cd increases from 15.49% to 57.28% after 30 days of incubation at 0.1 wt% SA), with the decrease of bioavailability of Cd. Exclusive of dehydrogenase, the activities of the other two enzymes tested were enhanced with the increase of incubation time, which indicated that dehydrogenase might be inhibited by ferric ions formed from SNZVI whereas no obvious inhibition was found for other enzymes. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used for the detection of microbial community changes, and the results showed that SNZVI and NZVI could increase bacterial taxa and improve bacterial abundance. All the experimental findings of this study provide new insights into the potential consequences of SNZVI treatments on the metal Cd immobilization in contaminated river sediments.