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Hair chemical element contents and influence factors of reproductive-age women in the West Ujimqin Banner, Inner Mongolia, China
- Zhou, Shanshan, Yuan, Haodong, Ma, Xiaoling, Liu, Ying
- Chemosphere 2017 v.166 pp. 528-539
- aluminum, barium, biomarkers, boron, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, diet, eating habits, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nationalities and ethnic groups, nickel, oxidants, placenta, pollution, pregnant women, risk, selenium, silicon, strontium, tin, titanium, traffic, vanadium, zinc, China
- Women have an increased risk for chemical element deficiencies during reproductive age, particularly due to higher chemical element requirements and poor diets. Twenty-one chemical elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V and Zn) in hair samples, which were collected from 71 non-pregnant and 236 pregnant women living in the West Ujimqin Banner, central Inner Mongolia, China, were measured, and the environment, dietary habits and ethnic group influence factors associated with the biomarker were analyzed. The results indicated that the average values of the chemical element contents from hair were greatly different compared to those from other areas, especially the Al, Cd, Pb, Ca and Sr contents. There was no significant difference among the three ethnicities for any element except Mn and Ti in non-pregnant women. Compared to non-pregnant women, in the first trimester group, the levels of nine chemical elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Si, Sn and Ti) decreased, while the others increased, and the contents of all of the chemical elements decreased in the second trimester group, while in the third trimester, there was a slight increase. Three chemical elements (Cu, Mn and Zn) displayed a synergistic correlation between each other in the third trimester group, which may protect the placenta from some oxidant damage. The high levels of Cd and Pb in hair likely originate from house renovations and traffic pollution. This study provided basic and useful information on the levels of chemical elements in reproductive-age women, and the results of this study are helpful to control the contents and improve the health of pregnant and non-pregnant women.