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Structural-functional adaptations of porcine CYP1A1 to metabolize polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

Molcan, Tomasz, Swigonska, Sylwia, Orlowska, Karina, Myszczynski, Kamil, Nynca, Anna, Sadowska, Agnieszka, Ruszkowska, Monika, Jastrzebski, Jan Pawel, Ciereszko, Renata E.
Chemosphere 2017 v.168 pp. 205-216
active sites, adverse effects, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, byproducts, chlorine, cytochrome P-450, enzymes, half life, humans, swine, tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, tissues, toxicity
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are widespread by-products of human industrial activity. They accumulate in tissues of animals and humans, exerting numerous adverse effects on different systems. In living organisms, dioxins are metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, including CYP1A1. Particular dioxin congeners differ in their toxicity level and ability to undergo biodegradation. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying dioxin susceptibility or resistance to biodegradation are unknown, in the present study the molecular interactions between five selected dioxins and porcine CYP1A1 protein were investigated. It was found that the ability of a dioxin to undergo CYP1A1-mediated degradation is associated mainly with the number and position of chlorine atoms in the dioxin molecule. Among all examined congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated the highest affinity to CYP1A1 and, at the same time, the greatest distance to the active site of the enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to other dioxins, the binding of the TCDD molecule to the porcine CYP1A1 active site resulted in a rapid and continuous closure of substrate channels. All the information may help to explain the extended half-life of TCDD in living organisms as well as its high toxicity.