Main content area

Long-time emergence patterns of Limnophora species (Diptera, Muscidae) in specific karst habitats: tufa barriers

Ivković, Marija, Pont, Adrian C.
Limnologica 2016 v.61 pp. 29-35
Muscidae, Simuliidae, adults, aquatic insects, emergence traps, flight, karsts, lakes, larvae, microhabitats, mosses and liverworts, multivoltine habit, national parks, predator-prey relationships, predators, summer, univoltine habit, water temperature, Croatia
The hunter-fly genus Limnophora (Muscidae: Coenosiinae) is an important component of running water assemblages. Both adults and larvae are predators, the adults mostly feeding on blackflies (Simuliidae) and other small aquatic insects. This study was conducted at two tufa barriers in Plitvice Lakes National Park (NP) (tufa barrier Labudovac and tufa barrier Kozjak-Milanovac) and at two tufa barriers in Krka National Park (NP) (tufa barrier Roški slap and tufa barrier Skradinski buk). Adults were collected monthly from February 2007 until December 2013 at Plitvice Lakes NP and from September 2013 to October 2014 at Krka NP, using pyramid-type emergence traps. Over the 7-year study period at the Plitvice Lakes tufa barriers, a total of 193 specimens belonging to 6 species were collected, while during the 1-year study period at the Krka tufa barriers a total of 848 specimens belonging to 4 species were collected. Abundance of Limnophora specimens at the Krka NP sites was up to 30 times higher than at the Plitvice Lakes NP sites, which could be attributed to higher levels of potential food and higher water temperatures. The dominant species at the Plitvice Lakes sites were Limnophora pulchriceps and Limnophora riparia. At the Krka tufa barriers, the dominant species at site Roški slap was Limnophora croatica and at site Skradinski buk Limnophora riparia. The highest numbers of emerging specimens at all sites were present in the summer months. At the Plitvice Lakes sites most species were univoltine or bivoltine, while at the Krka sites most species were multivoltine. Water temperature was the main factor influencing the timing of emergence and the duration of the flight period. The highest abundance of Limnophora species was recorded over moss substrate. A significant positive correlation emerged between the numbers of emerging prey and the numbers of emerging specimens of Limnophora. These results give a new insight into the microhabitat preferences and prey-predator relationships of Limnophora.