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Influence of particulate and dissociated metal-on-metal hip endoprosthesis wear on mesenchymal stromal cells in vivo and in vitro

Rakow, Anastasia, Schoon, Janosch, Dienelt, Anke, John, Thilo, Textor, Martin, Duda, Georg, Perka, Carsten, Schulze, Frank, Ode, Andrea
Biomaterials 2016 v.98 pp. 31-40
adverse effects, alkaline phosphatase, alloys, bone formation, bone marrow, chromium, cobalt, hips, mineralization, orthopedics, physicochemical properties, stromal cells
In hip arthroplasty the implants' articulating surfaces can be made of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloy. The use of these metal-on-metal (MoM) pairings can lead to the release of wear products such as metallic particles and dissociated metal species, raising concerns regarding their safety amongst orthopedic surgeons and the public. MoM-wear particles are reported to be heterogeneous in their physicochemical properties, are capable of inducing adverse effects on a cellular level and are thought to be involved in relevant clinical problems like aseptic osteolysis. Yet, it remains elusive how MoM-wear affects bone forming cells and their progenitors: bone marrow residing mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). This study introduces an assessment of the in vivo exposure to particulate and dissociated Co and Cr and evaluates the effects of MoM-wear on MSCs. The exposure to MoM-wear products in vivo and in vitro leads to a decrease in MSCs' osteogenic matrix mineralization and alkaline phosphatase activity on a cellular and systemic level. In conclusion, MoM-wear products are released in the periprosthetic region and elevate bone marrow Co and Cr concentrations towards levels that impair osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. Therefore, the ongoing use of CoCrMo alloys for articulating surfaces in joint replacement implants needs critical reconsideration.