U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Main content area

Arthropod surveillance programs: basic components, strategies and analysis

Cohnstaedt, Lee W., Rochon, Kateryn, Duehl, Adrian J., Anderson, John F., Barrera, Roberto, Su, Nan-Yao, Gerry, Alec C., Obenauer, Peter J., Campbell, James F., Lysyk, Tim J., Allan, Sandra A.
Annals of the entomological society of america 2012 v.105 no.2 pp. 135
Aethina tumida, Cimicidae, Culicidae, Culicoides, Hemiptera, Ixodidae, Rhinotermitidae, Tribolium castaneum, insect traps, kairomones, pest monitoring, pheromones, ticks
Effective entomological surveillance planning stresses a careful consideration of methodology, trapping technologies, and analysis techniques. Herein, the basic principles and technological components of arthropod surveillance plans are described, as promoted in the symposium “Advancements in arthropod monitoring technology, techniques, and analysis” presented at the 58th annual meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, CA. Interdisciplinary examples of arthropod monitoring for urban, medical, and veterinary applications are reviewed. Arthropod surveillance consists of the three components: 1) sampling method, 2) trap technology, and 3) analysis technique. A sampling method consists of selecting the best device or collection technique for a specific location and sampling at the proper spatial distribution, optimal duration, and frequency to achieve the surveillance objective. Optimized sampling methods are discussed for several mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) and ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The advantages and limitations of novel terrestrial and aerial insect traps, artiÞcial pheromones and kairomones are presented for the capture of red ßour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), small hive beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) respectively. After sampling, extrapolating real world population numbers from trap capture data are possible with the appropriate analysis techniques. Examples of this extrapolation and action thresholds are given for termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and red flour beetles.