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Somatic embryogenesis from stamens of Actaea racemosa L.

Pinker, I., Brosowski, S., Schenk, R.
Acta horticulturae 2016 no.1113 pp. 13-20
2,4-D, Actaea racemosa, auxins, callus, culture media, cytokinins, explants, genotype, gibberellic acid, hypocotyls, medicinal plants, micropropagation, picloram, plantlets, somatic embryogenesis, somatic embryos, stamens
Clonal propagation of selected high value plants is a prerequisite for establishing field cultivation of medicinal plants so far rarely bred, such as Actaea racemosa L. Micropropagation in Actaea has been already described via somatic embryogenesis from hypocotyl segments. Due to the fact that somatic embryos developed from hypocotyl segments are not genetically identical compared to the stock plants, stamens were used as explants for in vitro propagation of selected genotypes. In 4 years, 12 accessions involving 38 genotypes have been established and 8 of them have been induced and multiplied. In this study, the effect of 2,4-D on initiation of somatic embryogenesis was compared to picloram and TDZ. Callus induction was visible after 2 to 4 weeks of culture and stabilized after 5 months with the development of embryogenic mass on 2,4-D-containing culture medium. The genotype seems to be the most important factor for the success of culture establishment. Application of gibberellic acid or cytokinins, together with auxins, was evaluated in relation to maturation of somatic embryos and plantlet conversion. The application of gibberellic acid to the maturation medium stimulated the maturation of somatic embryos until torpedo stage while cytokinins encouraged rather the conversion of the somatic embryos.