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Ternary Oxides in the TiO2–ZnO System as Efficient Electron-Transport Layers for Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency over 15%

Yin, Xiong, Xu, Zhongzhong, Guo, Yanjun, Xu, Peng, He, Meng
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016 v.8 no.43 pp. 29580-29587
photovoltaic cells, pyrolysis, titanium, titanium dioxide, zinc, zinc oxide
Perovskite solar cells, which utilize organometal–halide perovskites as light-harvesting materials, have attracted great attention due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and potentially low cost in fabrication. A compact layer of TiO₂ or ZnO is generally applied as electron-transport layer (ETL) in a typical perovskite solar cell. In this study, we explored ternary oxides in the TiO₂–ZnO system to find new materials for the ETL. Compact layers of titanium zinc oxides were readily prepared on the conducting substrate via spray pyrolysis method. The optical band gap, valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of the ternary oxides varied significantly with the ratio of Ti to Zn, surprisingly, in a nonmonotonic way. When a zinc-rich ternary oxide was applied as ETL for the device, a PCE of 15.10% was achieved, comparable to that of the device using conventional TiO₂ ETL. Interestingly, the perovskite layer deposited on the zinc-rich ternary oxide is stable, in sharp contrast with that fabricated on a ZnO layer, which will turn into PbI₂ readily when heated. These results indicate that potentially new materials with better performance can be found for ETL of perovskite solar cells in ternary oxides, which deserve more exploration.