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Zanthoxylum piperitum reversed alveolar bone loss of periodontitis via regulation of bone remodeling-related factors

Kim, Mi Hye, Lee, Hye Ji, Park, Jung-Chul, Hong, Jongki, Yang, Woong Mo
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2017 v.195 pp. 137-142
Zanthoxylum piperitum, bone resorption, histology, males, mouth, nylon, osteoblasts, periodontitis, rats, topical application, traditional medicine
Zanthoxylum piperitum (ZP) has been used to prevent toothache in East Asia.In this study, we investigated the effects of ZP on periodontitis along with alveolar bone loss.Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into 4 groups; non-ligated (NOR), ligated and treated vehicle (CTR), ligated and treated 1mg/mL ZP (ZP1), and ligated and treated 100mg/mL ZP (ZP100). Sterilized 3-0 nylon ligature was placed into the subgingival sulcus around the both sides of mandibular first molar. After topical application of 1 and 100mg/mL ZP for 2 weeks, mandibles was removed for histology. In addition, SaOS-2 osteoblast cells were treated 1, 10 and 100μg/mL ZP for 24h to analyze the expressions of alveolar bone-related markers.Several alveolar bone resorption pits, which indicate cementum demineralization were decreased by ZP treatment. Topical ZP treatment inhibited periodontitis-induced alveolar bone loss. In addition, there were significant reduction of osteoclastic activities following topical ZP treatment in periodontium. The expression of RANKL was decreased in SaOS-2 osteoblast cells by treating ZP, while that of OPG was increased. ZP treatment increased the expressions of Runx2 and Osterix in SaOS-2 cells.In summary, ZP treatment inhibited alveolar bone loss as well as maintained the integrity of periodontal structures via regulation of bone remodeling. ZP may be a therapeutic target for treating periodontitis.