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Effects of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels leaves and continuous aerobic training in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low doses of streptozotocin

Baldissera, G., Sperotto, N.D.M., Rosa, H.T., Henn, J.G., Peres, V.F., Moura, D.J., Roehrs, R., Denardin, E.L.G., Dal Lago, P., Nunes, R.B., Saffi, J.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 2016 v.194 pp. 1012-1021
DNA damage, Syzygium cumini, additive effect, animal disease models, antioxidant activity, blood, blood glucose, catalase, diabetes, exercise, glucose, heart, high fat diet, kidneys, leaves, lipid peroxidation, liver, males, muscles, myocytes, myricetin, oxidation, oxidative stress, phenols, rats, streptozotocin, superoxide dismutase, tannins, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, tissues, traditional medicine, triacylglycerols
The leaves of Syzygium cumini (L.) or Skeels (Myrtaceae) are widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes.The present study evaluated the functional capacity, biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage from eight weeks of intervention with a crude hydroalcoholic extract of S. cumini leaves (EBH) and continuous aerobic training (TAC) in diabetic (D) rats.A hydroalcoholic (50%) extract was prepared by ultrasound and phytochemical parameters (total phenols, total tannins and myricetin content) were analyzed. Thirty-seven male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: normoglycemic controls (CONT), diabetic controls (D-CONT), diabetics treated with extract (D+EBH), trained diabetic (D+TAC) and diabetics treated with extract and trained (D+EBH+TAC). Functional capacity was assessed with a maximum exercise capacity test; biochemical parameters with enzymatic kits; oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and oxidized dichlorofluorescein (DCF), and the DNA damage by the comet assay.The D+TAC and D+EBH+TAC groups showed better functional capacity at the end of interventions. The D+EBH group showed glucose and triglyceride reduction, lowest DNA damage index in the blood, liver, kidney, heart, lung and gastrocnemius muscle, improved SOD levels in the liver, kidney and lung, improved CAT levels in the kidney and lower lipid peroxidation in all tissues studied, compared to the D-CONT group. The exercise (D+TAC) was effective in reducing triglycerides, improving SOD levels in the lung, reducing lipid peroxidation in all tissues studied and reducing the DCF oxidation in the kidney, in addition to protecting against DNA damage in the blood and heart. However, the additive effect of the intervention protocols when combined (EBH+TAC) was observed only in improving the gastrocnemius SOD levels. The phytochemical analyses showed a high content of phenols and the presence of myricetin glycosides.The findings in this study suggest a crude hydroalcoholic extract of S. cumini leaves has potential hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and protective properties acting against oxidative stress and against DNA damage, probably due to its phenols and myricetin glycoside content and the antioxidant properties of these constituents. Moreover, exercise was suggested to have beneficial effects on diabetes, improving functional capacity, ameliorating blood triglyceride control and decreasing lipid peroxidation, but with no effects on ameliorating blood glucose levels. The association of intervention protocols presented an additive effect on the antioxidant SOD activity in the muscle cells of diabetic rats.