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Inactivation and changes in metabolic profile of selected foodborne bacteria by 460 nm LED illumination

Kumar, Amit, Ghate, Vinayak, Kim, Min-Jeong, Zhou, Weibiao, Khoo, Gek Hoon, Yuk, Hyun-Gyun
Food microbiology 2017 v.63 pp. 12-21
Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria, coformycin, control methods, detection limit, food safety, lighting, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, metabolites, metabolomics, models, tyramine
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 460 nm light-emitting diode (LED) on the inactivation of foodborne bacteria. Additionally, the change in the endogenous metabolic profile of LED illuminated cells was analyzed to understand the bacterial response to the LED illumination. Six different species of bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella Typhimurium) were illuminated with 460 nm LED to a maximum dose of 4080 J/cm2 at 4, 10 and 25 °C. Inactivation curves were modeled using Hom model. Metabolic profiling of the non-illuminated and illuminated cells was performed using a Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry system. Results indicate that the 460 nm LED significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the populations of all six bacterial species. For example, the population of S. aureus reached below detection limit within 7 h. B. cereus was most resistant to photo-inactivation and exhibited about 3-log reduction in 9 h. Metabolic profiling of the illuminated cells indicated that several metabolites e.g. 11-deoxycortisol, actinonin, coformycin, tyramine, chitobiose etc. were regulated during LED illumination. These results elucidate the effectiveness of 460 nm LED against foodborne bacteria and hence, its suitability as a novel antimicrobial control method to ensure food safety.