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Alkaloids in the valorization of European Lupinus spp. seeds crop

Magalhães, Sara C.Q., Fernandes, Fátima, Cabrita, Ana R.J., Fonseca, António J.M., Valentão, Patrícia, Andrade, Paula B.
Industrial crops and products 2017 v.95 pp. 286-295
Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, antioxidant activity, dose response, gas chromatography, geneticists, gramine, humans, nitric oxide, nutritionists, piperidines, seeds, sparteine, Europe
In this study, alkaloids from lupin varieties with commercial interest in Europe were identified and quantified. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of some rich-alkaloid lupin extracts was assessed by 5-lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition and nitric oxide radical (NO) scavenging assays, respectively. Relationships between extracts activity and those of pure standards were stablished.Nine alkaloids belonging to quinolizidine, indole and piperidine classes were identified by means of GC-IT/MS and quantified by GC-FID using a validated method. Lupanine was the most abundant alkaloid in white and narrow-leafed lupins (Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L., respectively) and sparteine in most yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus L.), but their proportions were cultivar-dependent. Gramine, smipine, angustifoline and lupanine derivatives were also identified. Five lupin varieties (Amiga, Estoril, Lumen, Dukat and Mister) were characterized as sweet (<0.5g alkaloids/kg, dry matter basis) and two of them respected the safety limit imposed by the European health authorities for human consumption (≤0.2g/kg, dry matter basis). Despite the weak effect on NO, a dose-dependent response towards LOX was found for all the studied extracts, which followed the order Taper>Estoril>Multitalia-PT>Dukat>Azuro>Multitalia-IT>Nacional.To our knowledge, the alkaloids composition of some of the varieties, as well as the study of the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential of rich-alkaloid lupin extracts are here reported for the first time. The results presented are a source of easily available data for producers, nutritionists and geneticists, and add biological knowledge on a major class of compounds in lupins.