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Immunomodulatory proteins FIP-gts and chloroquine induce caspase-independent cell death via autophagy for resensitizing cisplatin-resistant urothelial cancer cells

Hsin, I-Lun, Wang, Shao-Chuan, Li, Jian-Ri, Ciou, Tsai-Chun, Wu, Chih-Hsien, Wu, Hung-Ming, Ko, Jiunn-Liang
Phytomedicine 2016 v.23 no.13 pp. 1566-1573
Ganoderma tsugae, Western blotting, autophagy, carcinoma, cell cycle, cell viability, chloroquine, cisplatin, cysteine, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, genes, lung neoplasms, lupus erythematosus, malaria, membrane potential, mitochondrial membrane, neoplasm cells, proteins, rheumatoid arthritis, staining, therapeutics, urinary bladder neoplasms
Chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor, is used for malaria, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus therapy. In our previous study, FIP-gts, an immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae, inhibited cell viability in lung cancer cells and urothelial cancer cells. Urothelial carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer. Cisplatin resistance is an important issue in urothelial carcinoma therapy.The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of combination treatment with FIP-gts and chloroquine on cytotoxicity to resensitize the cisplatin-resistant cells.FIP-gts and chloroquine cytotoxicity were determined by evaluating CCK-8 assay. Cell death pathways, ROS and cell cycle arrested were analysed through flow cytometry and Western blot. ShRNA targeting to autophagy-related genes were tested to evaluate their autophagic cell death for resistant urothelial cells.Using CCK-8 assay, chloroquine increased FIP-gts-induced cytotoxicity in parental and cisplatin-resistant urothelial cancer cell lines. On flow cytometry, chloroquine enhanced FIP-gts-mediated sub-G1 accumulation, annexin V positive signal and mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Caspase-3/PARP cascade and z-VAD-fmk were performed to prove that FIP-gts and chloroquine induced caspase-independent cell death. Using H2DCFDA staining and flow cytometry, FIP-gts and chloroquine did not induce ROS production. N-acetyl cysteine, a ROS scavenger, inhibited the cytotoxicity and LC3-II accumulation in FIP-gts and chloroquine-treated N/P cells. To elucidate the role of autophagy in caspase-independent cell death by FIP-gts and chloroquine, LC3 shRNA were used to inhibit autophagy in N/P cells. The capabilities of FIP-gts and chloroquine to induce cytotoxicity and sub-G1 phase accumulation were abolished in autophagy-defective cells. This is the first study to reveal the novel function of FIP-gts in triggering caspase-independent cell death in cisplatin-resistant urothelial cancer cells.Chloroquine enhanced FIP-gts-induced autophagy dependent caspase-independent cell death via abundant autophagosome accumulation. Combination treatment with FIP-gts and chloroquine may provide a new strategy for urothelial cancer therapy.