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Current applications and different approaches for microbial l-asparaginase production

Cachumba, Jorge Javier Muso, Antunes, Felipe Antonio Fernandes, Peres, Guilherme Fernando Dias, Brumano, Larissa Pereira, Santos, Júlio César Dos, Da Silva, Silvio Silvério
Brazilian journal of microbiology 2016 v.47 pp. 77-85
Hodgkin disease, acrylamides, ammonium, asparaginase, asparagine, aspartic acid, bacteria, blood serum, catalytic activity, color, drug therapy, flavor, food industry, fried foods, humans, hydrolysis, lymphocytic leukemia, reducing sugars, rodents, texture
l-asparaginase (EC is an enzyme that catalysis mainly the asparagine hydrolysis in l-aspartic acid and ammonium. This enzyme is presented in different organisms, such as microorganisms, vegetal, and some animals, including certain rodent's serum, but not unveiled in humans. It can be used as important chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphomas (particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and Hodgkin's lymphoma), and has been a pivotal agent in chemotherapy protocols from around 30 years. Also, other important application is in food industry, by using the properties of this enzyme to reduce acrylamide levels in commercial fried foods, maintaining their characteristics (color, flavor, texture, security, etc.) Actually, l-asparaginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-asparagine, not allowing the reaction of reducing sugars with this aminoacid for the generation of acrylamide. Currently, production of l-asparaginase is mainly based in biotechnological production by using some bacteria. However, industrial production also needs research work aiming to obtain better production yields, as well as novel process by applying different microorganisms to increase the range of applications of the produced enzyme. Within this context, this mini-review presents l-asparaginase applications, production by different microorganisms and some limitations, current investigations, as well as some challenges to be achieved for profitable industrial production.