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Application of wounding stress to produce a nutraceutical-rich carrot powder ingredient and its incorporation to nixtamalized corn flour tortillas

Santana-Gálvez, Jesús, Pérez-Carrillo, Esther, Velázquez-Reyes, Héctor H., Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis, Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A.
Journal of functional foods 2016 v.27 pp. 655-666
adhesion, alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, carrots, chlorogenic acid, cohesion, color, corn flour, deformation, dietary fiber, functional foods, ingredients, lutein, masa, nixtamalization, phenolic compounds, shelf life, texture, tortillas
Wounding stress was applied to carrot to obtain a nutraceutical-rich carrot powder (stressed-carrot powder, SCP) that contained 522, 225, and 23% more chlorogenic acid, total phenolics, and dietary fiber, respectively, compared to regular carrot powder. Tortillas were produced by substituting nixtamalized corn flour with 10% w/w dry weight (DW) of SCP, showing considerable sensory acceptability, and causing an increase in masa elasticity and deformation resistance. Furthermore, SCP substitution induced a change in color of tortillas to yellow, but did not affect cohesiveness and adhesiveness of masa, neither the dimensions, rollability, texture, nor shelf-life of tortillas. Unlike regular tortillas, 10% SCP tortillas had chlorogenic acid, β-carotene, α-carotene, and lutein (270, 39, 36, and 15 µg/g DW, respectively), 155% more total phenolics, and 35% more dietary fiber. SCP is a suitable ingredient for nutraceutical enhancement of foods, which could greatly aid in the prevention of chronic and degenerative diseases.