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Anatomical and radiographical studies on the venous drainage of the udder in goat with special reference to the cranial superficial epigastric vein

Adam, Z.A., Ragab, G.A., Awaad, A.S., Tawfiek, M.G., Abdel Maksoud, M.K.M.
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 2016 v.5 pp. 284-290
drainage, goats, image analysis, latex, radiography, udders
The present study was achieved to clarify the venous drainage of the udder in twelve healthy Egyptian Baladi goats. Gum-milk latex injection (nine specimens) and radiographic imaging technique (three specimens) were used to demonstrate the course and tributaries of the main veins draining the udder. The obtained results revealed that the udder of goat was drained through three venous circles, one at its base, while the other two were present in the form of one circle at the base of each teat. The basal venous circle was formed by the external pudendal and cranial superficial epigastric veins, as well as the dorsal labial and mammary branch of the ventral perineal vein. While the papillary venous circle was formed mainly by the cranial and caudal lateral sinus branches of the cranial mammary vein of the external pudendal vein. Also, the origin, course, distribution and termination of the cranial superficial epigastric vein were described. The venous architecture reported in this study could serve as a guide for the further surgical interference within the udder of goat.