U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot gov

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.


Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.


Main content area

Peracetic acid is a suitable disinfectant for recirculating fish-microalgae integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems

Dibo Liu, Sascha Behrens, Lars-Flemming Pedersen, David L. Straus, Thomas Meinelt
Aquaculture reports 2016 v.4 pp. 136-142
Tetraselmis chuii, bacteria, biofuels, biomass, byproducts, disease control, disinfectants, fish, hydrogen peroxide, microalgae, nitrogen, pH, pathogens, peracetic acid, photosynthesis, recirculating aquaculture systems, sustainable development
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is a promising direction for the sustainable development of aquaculture. Microalgae have good potential to be integrated with recirculating aquaculture systems because they can use the nitrogen excreted from fish and share the same optimal pH value as in aquaculture. As a byproduct, the microalgae biomass can be used for fish feed or biofuel. However, the recirculating fish-microalgae IMTA system is under constant threat from fish pathogens and phytoplankton-lytic bacteria. Therefore, it is necessary to apply proper disinfectants as prophylaxis or treatment which are effective against these threats, but safe to fish and microalgae. For this purpose, peracetic acid (PAA) is a valid option because it is highly effective against fish pathogens and bacteria at low concentrations and degrades spontaneously to harmless residues. In the present study, we exposed the culture of a marine microalgae Tetraselmis chuii once per day for four days to four PAA products with differing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)/PAA proportions at two concentrations (1 and 2mgL−1 PAA). The H2O2 solutions at equivalent total peroxide (H2O2+PAA) concentrations were tested in parallel. The results show that the growth and photosynthesis of T. chuii were not affected by three of the PAA products (Wofasteril® E400, Wofasteril® E250 and Applichem® 150) and equivalent H2O2 solutions at both concentrations. In contrast, Wofasteril® Lspez and an equivalent H2O2 solution at both concentrations caused irreversible culture collapse, photosynthesis dysfunction and irreversible cell damage. In conclusion, PAA products with low proportions of H2O2 are optimal disinfectants for fish-microalgae IMTA systems.