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Relationship of Soluble Grape-Derived Proteins to Condensed Tannin Extractability during Red Wine Fermentation

Springer, Lindsay F., Chen, Lei-An, Stahlecker, Avery C., Cousins, Peter, Sacks, Gavin L.
Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 2016 v.64 no.43 pp. 8191-8199
Vitis vinifera, bentonite, climate, fermentation, freezing, grapes, heat, hybrids, juices, pathogenesis-related proteins, proanthocyanidins, red wines, sorption isotherms, winemaking
In red winemaking, the extractability of condensed tannins (CT) can vary considerably even under identical fermentation conditions, and several explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. Recent work has demonstrated that grape pathogenesis-related proteins (PRPs) may limit retention of CT added to finished wines, but their relevance to CT extractability has not been evaluated. In this work, Vitis vinifera and interspecific hybrids (Vitis ssp.) from both hot and cool climates were vinified under small-scale, controlled conditions. The final CT concentration in wine was well modeled from initial grape tannin and juice protein concentrations using the Freundlich equation (r²= 0.686). In follow-up experiments, separation and pretreatment of juice by bentonite, heating, freezing, or exogenous tannin addition reduced protein concentrations in juices from two grape varieties. The bentonite treatment also led to greater wine CT for one of the varieties, indicating that prefermentation removal of grape protein may be a viable approach to increasing wine CT.