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Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Gastric Cancer Risk in an Italian Case-Control Study

Shivappa, Nitin, Hébert, James R., Ferraroni, Monica, La Vecchia, Carlo, Rossi, Marta
Nutrition and cancer 2016 v.68 no.8 pp. 1262-1268
case-control studies, confidence interval, energy intake, food frequency questionnaires, hospitals, odds ratio, patients, regression analysis, risk, stomach neoplasms, Italy
Background : In this study, we explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and gastric cancer risk in an Italian case-control study. Materials and Methods : Cases were 230 patients with incident, histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer from the Greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Controls were 547 frequency-matched subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. The DII was computed using a reproducible and valid 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through logistic regression models conditioned on age and sex and adjusted for recognized confounding factors, including total energy intake. Results : Subjects with the most pro-inflammatory diet had a higher risk of gastric cancer compared to subjects with the most anti-inflammatory diet (OR Qᵤₐᵣₜᵢₗₑ₄ᵥₛ₁ = 2.35, 95% confidence interval, 1.32, 4.20; P -trend = 0.004). Conclusion : These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII score, was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.